- GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data from Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North America, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
"Mines near Culross, in Fife, have traversed a vent of Upper Limestone group (Namurian) age at levels estimated to be 150 to 250 feet below the contemporary surface. The vent-filling comprises a central basaltic tuff, and a marginal lithic tuff derived entirely from the Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. A sill-like body of lithic tuff has been intruded beyond the vent margins. In sediments outside the vent post-volcanic subsidence has generated small faults; these become flat-lying or undulating where they traverse mudstones and siltstones that are inferred to have been incompletely indurated at the time of the subsidence. The volcanic and post-volcanic processes are discussed in the light of Cloos' interpretation of Swabian volcanism."