- GeoRef, Copyright 2004, American Geological Institute. Reference includes data from Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North America, Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Karroo sedimentation in the Zambezi valley area between Kafue and Livingstone, Northern Rhodesia, took place on a mature surface developed on an intracratonic basin of the African shield. The formations comprise the lower Wankie sandstone (upper Carboniferous), Gwembe coal formation, Madumabisa mudstone, Escarpment grit, upper Karroo sandstone, and Batoka basalt (lower Jurassic). Structural development since Karroo time is outlined, and it is thought that the present valley is a downwarped part of the peneplain which forms the plateau adjacent to the northwest.