- Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010
A succession of Viséan (mid- to late Holkerian) volcanic rocks up to 340 m thick is preserved in three fault-blocks at the south end of the Isle of Bute in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. These rocks form part of the Clyde Plateau Volcanic Formation, which, in this area, disconformably overlies sandstones of the lower Millport Member of the Clyde Sandstone Formation. The lower part of the volcanic succession in south Bute, c. 140 m thick, corresponds to the lower Strathgryfe lavas of the Renfrewshire Hills. This part of the succession is composed dominantly of feldspar-macrophyric and feldspar-microphyric basaltic rocks and mugearites. It is present in all three fault-blocks, whereas the succeeding volcanic rocks (middle and upper divisions) are only preserved in the median St Blane's block where they have a combined thickness of about 200 m. The two younger subdivisions are respectively correlative to the Misty Law Trachytic Centre, which forms a lens between the lower and upper Strathgryfe Members, and the upper Strathgryfe Member of the North Ayrshire section. Lavas of the lower division are feldspar-macrophyric and feldspar-microphyric basaltic rocks and mugearites, but those of the middle and upper divisions display a wider compositional spectrum, including feldspar-macro- and microphyric rocks but ranging from olivine-augite-macrophyric and olivine-augite-feldspar-macrophyric basalts to trachytes. The mafic lavas of south Bute have chondrite-normalized multi-element plots similar to those of ocean island basalts, with enrichment in incompatible elements. The trachytic lavas have similar patterns but are strongly depleted in Sr, P and Ti, reflecting fractionation of such minerals as plagioclase, apatite and magnetite/ilmenite during evolution of the parent magmas. Distribution of high field strength elements favours a within-plate origin for the south Bute lavas and supports derivation from a relatively deep (>50 km) mantle source (garnet lherzolite). Chondrite-normalized REE plots for basaltic lavas of the lower division show enrichment in LREEs and lack strong Eu anomalies. Strong positive Eu anomalies in both felsic and mafic lavas of the middle and upper divisions may be attributable to high oxygen fugacities, but hydrothermal activity or feldspar fractionation may also have played a role. Fe-rich weathering profiles attest to intermittent extrusion and intense weathering processes.